Lesson: Metals and Non-metals

Question 1

Which of the following property is generally not shown by metals?

(a) Electrical conduction

(b) Sonorous in nature

(c) Dullness

(d) Ductility

Solution:

(c)

Question 2

The ability of metals to be drawn into thin wire is known as:

(a) Ductility

(b) Malleability

(c) Sonority

(d) Conductivity

Solution:

(a)

Question 3

Aluminium is used for making cooking utensils. Which of the following properties of aluminium are responsible for the same?

(i) Good thermal conductivity

(ii) Good electrical conductivity

(iii) Ductility

(iv) High melting point

(a) (i) and (ii)

(b) (i) and (iii)

(c) (ii) and (iii)

(d) (i) and (iv)

Solution:

(d)

Question 4

Which one of the following metals does not react with cold as well as hot water?

(a) Na

(b) Ca

(c) Mg

(d) Fe

Solution:

(d)

Question 5

Which of the following oxide(s) of iron would be obtained on prolonged reaction of iron with steam?

(a) FeO MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGgbGaamyzaiaad+eaaaa@389F@

(b) F e 2 O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGgbGaamyza8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWG pbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG4maaWdaeqaaaaa@3AB8@

(c) F e 3 O 4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGgbGaamyza8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaiodaa8aabeaak8qacaWG pbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGinaaWdaeqaaaaa@3ABA@

(d) F e 2 O 3 and F e 3 O 4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGgbGaamyza8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWG pbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG4maaWdaeqaaOWdbiaadggacaWGUbGaam izaiaabccacaWGgbGaamyza8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaiodaa8aabeaa k8qacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGinaaWdaeqaaaaa@4309@

Solution:

(c)

Question 6

What happens when calcium is treated with water?

(i) It does not react with water

(ii) It reacts violently with water

(iii) It reacts less violently with water

(iv) Bubbles of hydrogen gas formed stick to the surface of calcium

(a) (i) and (iv)

(b) (ii) and (iii)

(c) (i) and (ii)

(d) (iii) and (iv)

Solution:

(d) 

Question 7

Generally, metals react with acids to give salt and hydrogen gas.

Which one of the following acids does not give hydrogen gas on reacting with metals (except Mn and Mg)?

(a) H 2 S O 4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaOWdbiaadofacaWG pbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGinaaWdaeqaaaaa@3AA9@

(b) HCl MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibGaam4qaiaadYgacaaMc8oaaa@3A27@

(c) HN O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibGaamOtaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaaa aa@3973@

(d) All of these

Solution:

(c)

Question 8

The composition of aqua-regia is:

(a) Dil. HCl:Conc. HN O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGebGaamyAaiaadYgacaGGUaGaaeiiaiaadIeacaWGdbGaamiB aiaacQdacaWGdbGaam4Baiaad6gacaWGJbGaaiOlaiaabccacaWGib GaamOtaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaaaaa@45A0@

     3:1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaaIZaGaaiOoaiaaigdaaaa@384C@

(b) Conc. HCl:Dil. HN O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaam4Baiaad6gacaWGJbGaaiOlaiaabccacaWGibGaam4q aiaadYgacaGG6aGaamiraiaadMgacaWGSbGaaiOlaiaabccacaWGib GaamOtaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaaaaa@45A0@

     3:1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaaIZaGaaiOoaiaaigdaaaa@384C@

(c) Conc. HCl:Conc.HN O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaam4Baiaad6gacaWGJbGaaiOlaiaabccacaWGibGaam4q aiaadYgacaGG6aGaam4qaiaad+gacaWGUbGaam4yaiaac6cacaaMc8 UaaGPaVlaadIeacaWGobGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaiodaa8aa beaaaaa@4902@

     3:1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaaIZaGaaiOoaiaaigdaaaa@384C@

(d) Dil. HCl:Dil.HN O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGebGaamyAaiaadYgacaGGUaGaaeiiaiaadIeacaWGdbGaamiB aiaacQdacaWGebGaamyAaiaadYgacaGGUaGaaGPaVlaaykW7caWGib GaamOtaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaaaaa@4724@

     3:1 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaaIZaGaaiOoaiaaigdaaaa@384C@

Solution:

(c)

Question 9

Which of the following are not ionic compounds?

(i) KCl MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGlbGaam4qaiaadYgaaaa@389F@

(ii) HCl MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibGaam4qaiaadYgacaaMc8oaaa@3A27@

(iii) CC l 4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaam4qaiaadYgapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaI0aaapaqabaaa aa@3981@

(iv) NaCl MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGobGaamyyaiaadoeacaWGSbaaaa@3988@

(a) (i) and (ii)

(b) (ii) and (iii)

(c) (iii) and (iv)

(d) (i) and (iii)

Solution:

(b)

Question 10

Which one of the following properties is not generally exhibited by ionic compounds?

(a) Solubility in water

(b) Electrical conductivity in solid state

(c) High melting and boiling points

(d) Electrical conductivity in molten state

Solution:

(b)

Question 11

Which of the following metals exist in their native state in nature?

(i) Cu

(ii) Au

(iii) Zn

(iv) Ag

(a) (i) and (ii)

(b) (ii) and (iii)

(c) (ii) and (iv)

(d) (iii) and (iv)

Solution:

(c)

Question 12

Metals are refined by using different methods. Which of the following metals are refined by electrolytic refining?

(i) Au

(ii) Cu

(iii) Na

(iv) K

(a) (i) and (ii)

(b) (i) and (iii)

(c) (ii) and (iii)

(d) (iii) and (iv)

Solution:

(a)

Question 13

Silver articles become black on prolonged exposure to air. This is due to the formation of:

(a) A g 3 N MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGbbGaam4za8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaiodaa8aabeaak8qacaWG obaaaa@399E@

(b) A g 2 O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGbbGaam4za8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWG pbaaaa@399E@

(c) A g 2 S MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGbbGaam4za8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWG tbaaaa@39A2@

(d) A g 2 S and A g 3 N MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGbbGaam4za8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWG tbGaaeiiaiaadggacaWGUbGaamizaiaabccacaWGbbGaam4za8aada WgaaWcbaWdbiaaiodaa8aabeaak8qacaWGobaaaa@4160@

Solution:

(c)

Question 14

Galvanisation is a method of protecting iron from rusting by coating with a thin layer of:

(a) Gallium

(b) Aluminium

(c) Zinc

(d) Silver

Solution:

(c)

Question 15

Stainless steel is very useful material for our life. In stainless steel, iron is mixed with:

(a) Ni and Cr

(b) Cu and Cr

(c) Ni and Cu

(d) Cu and Au

Solution:

(a) 

Question 16

If copper is kept open in air, it slowly loses its shining brown surface and gains a green coating. It is due to the formation of:

(a) CuS O 4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDaiaadofacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGinaaWd aeqaaaaa@3A6E@

(b) CuC O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDaiaadoeacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG4maaWd aeqaaaaa@3A5D@

(c) Cu ( N O 3 ) 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDa8aadaqadaqaa8qacaWGobGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWc baWdbiaaiodaa8aabeaaaOGaayjkaiaawMcaamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG OmaaWdaeqaaaaa@3D21@

(d) CuO MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDaiaad+eaaaa@38AC@

Solution:

(b) 

Question 17

Generally, metals are solid in nature. Which one of the following metals is found in liquid state at room temperature?

(a) Na

(b) Fe

(c) Cr

(d) Hg

Solution:

(d) 

Question 18

Which of the following metals are obtained by electrolysis of their chlorides in molten state?

(i) Na

(ii) Ca

(iii) Fe

(iv) Cu

(a) (i) and (iv)

(b) (iii) and (iv)

(c) (i) and (iii)

(d) (i) and (ii)

Solution:

(d) 

Question 19

Generally, non-metals are not lustrous. Which of the following non-metal is lustrous?

(a) Sulphur

(b) Oxygen

(c) Nitrogen

(d) Iodine

Solution:

(d)

Question 20

Which one of the following four metals would be displaced from the solution of its salts by other three metals?

(a) Mg

(b) Ag

(c) Zn

(d) Cu

Solution:

(b)

Question 21

2 mL each of concentrated HCl MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibGaam4qaiaadYgaaaa@389C@ , HN O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibGaamOtaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaaa aa@39A1@  and a mixture of concentrated

HCl MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibGaam4qaiaadYgaaaa@389C@  and concentrated HN O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibGaamOtaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaaa aa@39A1@  in the ratio of 3: 1 were taken in test tubes labelled as A, B and C. A small piece of metal was put in each test tube. No change occurred in test tubes A and B but the metal got dissolved in test tube C respectively. The metal could be:

(a) Al

(b) Au

(c) Cu

(d) Pt

Solution:

(b)

Question 22

An alloy is:

(a) An element

(b) A compound

(c) A homogeneous mixture

(d) A heterogeneous mixture

Solution:

(c)

Question 23

An electrolytic cell consists of:

(i) Positively charged cathode

(ii) Negatively charged anode

(iii) Positively charged anode

(iv) Negatively charged cathode

(a) (i) and (ii)

(b) (iii) and (iv)

(c) (i) and (iii)

(d) (ii) ad (iv)

Solution:

(b)

Question 24

During electrolytic refining of zinc, it gets:

(a) Deposited on cathode

(b) Deposited on anode

(c) Deposited on cathode as well as anode

(d) Remains in the solution

Solution:

(a)

Question 25

An element A is soft and can be cut with a knife. This is very reactive to air and cannot be kept open in air. It reacts vigorously with water. Identify the element from the following:

(a) Mg

(b) Na

(c) P

(d) Ca

Solution:

(b)

Question 26

Alloys are homogeneous mixtures of a metal with a metal or non-metal. Which among the following alloys contain non-metal as one of its constituents?

(a) Brass

(b) Bronze

(c) Amalgam

(d) Steel

Solution:

(d)

Question 27

Which among the following statements is incorrect for magnesium metal?

(a) It burns in oxygen with a dazzling white flame

(b) It reacts with cold water to form magnesium oxide and evolves hydrogen gas

(c) It reacts with hot water to form magnesium hydroxide and evolves hydrogen gas

(d) It reacts with steam to form magnesium hydroxide and evolves hydrogen gas

Solution:

(b)

Question 28

Which among the following alloys contain mercury as one of its constituents?

(a) Stainless steel

(b) Alnico

(c) Solder

(d) Zinc amalgam

Solution:

(d)

Question 29

Reaction between X and Y, forms compound Z. X loses electron and Y gains electron. Which of the following properties is not shown by Z?

(a) Has high melting point

(b) Has low melting point

(c) Conducts electricity in molten state

(d) Occurs as solid

Solution:

(b)

Question 30

The electronic configurations of three elements X, Y and Z are

X MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbmLMB1H hicL2BSLMB11garmWu51MyVXgaruWqVvNCPvMCG4uz3bqefqvATv2C G4uz3bIuV1wyUbqee0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlh91rFfeu0dXdh9vqqj =hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXd ar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaada abauaaaOqaaGabaKqzagaeaaaaaaaaa8qacaWFuacaaa@3D55@  2, 8; Y MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbmLMB1H hicL2BSLMB11garmWu51MyVXgaruWqVvNCPvMCG4uz3bqefqvATv2C G4uz3bIuV1wyUbqee0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlh91rFfeu0dXdh9vqqj =hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXd ar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaada abauaaaOqaaGabaKqzagaeaaaaaaaaa8qacaWFuacaaa@3D55@  2, 8, 7 and Z MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbmLMB1H hicL2BSLMB11garmWu51MyVXgaruWqVvNCPvMCG4uz3bqefqvATv2C G4uz3bIuV1wyUbqee0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlh91rFfeu0dXdh9vqqj =hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXd ar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaada abauaaaOqaaGabaKqzagaeaaaaaaaaa8qacaWFuacaaa@3D55@  2, 8, 2. Which of the following is correct?

(a) X is a metal

(b) Y is a metal

(c) Z is a non-metal

(d) Y is a non-metal and Z is a metal

Solution:

(d)

Question 31

Although metals form basic oxides, which of the following metals form an amphoteric oxide?

(a) Na

(b) Ca

(c) Al

(d) Cu

Solution:

(c)

Question 32

Generally, non-metals are not conductors of electricity. Which of the following is a good conductor of electricity?

(a) Diamond

(b) Graphite

(c) Sulphur

(d) Fullerene

Solution:

(b)

Question 33

Electrical wires have a coating of an insulting material. The material, generally used is:

(a) Sulphur

(b) Graphite

(c) PVC

(d) All can be used

Solution:

(c)

Question 34

Which of the following non-metals is a liquid?

(a) Carbon

(b) Bromine

(c) Phosphorus

(d) Sulphur

Solution:

(b)

Question 35

Which of the following can undergo a chemical reaction?

(a) MgS O 4 +Fe MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGnbGaam4zaiaadofacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGinaaWd aeqaaOWdbiabgUcaRiaadAeacaWGLbaaaa@3D1B@

(b ZnS O 4 +Fe MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGAbGaamOBaiaadofacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGinaaWd aeqaaOWdbiabgUcaRiaadAeacaWGLbaaaa@3D2F@

(c) MgS O 4 +Pb MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGnbGaam4zaiaadofacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGinaaWd aeqaaOWdbiabgUcaRiaadcfacaWGIbaaaa@3D22@

(d) CuS O 4 +Fe MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDaiaadofacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGinaaWd aeqaaOWdbiabgUcaRiaadAeacaWGLbaaaa@3D1F@

Solution:

(d)

Question 36

Which one of the following figures correctly describes the process of electrolytic refining?

Solution:

(c)

Question 37

Iqbal treated a lustrous, divalent element M with sodium hydroxide. He observed the formation of bubbles in reaction mixture. He made the same observations when this element was treated with hydrochloric acid. Suggest how he can identify the produced gas? Write chemical equations for both the reactions.

Solution:

The produced gas can be identified by bringing a burning candle near the mouth of the reaction vessel. The gas burns with a pop sound. Hence, it is hydrogen.

M+2NaOHN a 2 M O 2 + H 2 M+2HClMC l 2 + H 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGceaqabeaaqaaaaa aaaaWdbiaad2eacqGHRaWkcaaIYaGaaGPaVlaad6eacaWGHbGaam4t aiaadIeacqGHsgIRcaWGobGaamyya8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8 aabeaak8qacaWGnbGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaa k8qacqGHRaWkcaWGibWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaaGcbq aWa8qacaWGnbGaey4kaSIaaGOmaiaaykW7caWGibGaam4qaiaadYga cqGHsgIRcaWGnbGaam4qaiaadYgapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapa qabaGcpeGaey4kaSIaamisa8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaa aaaa@5781@

Question 38

During extraction of metals, electrolytic refining is used to obtain pure metals.

(a) Which material will be used as anode and cathode for refining of silver metal by this process?

(b) Suggest a suitable electrolyte also.

(c) In this electrolytic cell, where do we get pure silver after passing electric current?

Solution:

(a) Impure silver will be used as anode whereas pure silver will be used as cathode.

(b) Silver salt, such as AgN O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGbbGaam4zaiaad6eacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG4maaWd aeqaaaaa@3A58@  can be used as the electrolyte.

(c) We get pure silver at the cathode.

Question 39

Why should the metal sulphides and carbonates be converted to metal oxides in the process of extraction of metal from them?

Solution:

Compared to the metal sulphides and carbonates, it is easier to obtain the metal from its oxide. Hence, in the process of extraction of metal, the metal sulphides and carbonates should be converted to metal oxides.

Question 40

Generally, when metals are treated with mineral acids, hydrogen gas is liberated but when metals (except Mn and Mg), treated with HN O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibGaamOtaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaaa aa@3973@ , hydrogen is not liberated, why?

Solution:

It is because HN O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibGaamOtaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaaa aa@3973@  is a strong oxidising agent. Hence, it oxidises the hydrogen

( H 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaaaa@37CB@  ) and produces H 2 O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaOWdbiaad+eaaaa@38B9@ .

Question 41

Compound X and aluminium are used to join railway tracks.

(a) Identify the compound X

(b) Name the reaction 

(c) Write down its reaction.

Solution:

(a) X  F e 2 O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGybGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaamOraiaadwgapaWaaSbaaSqa a8qacaaIYaaapaqabaGcpeGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaiodaa8 aabeaaaaa@3D93@

(b)Thermite reaction

(c) F e 2 O 3 ( s )+2Al( s )2Fe( l )+A l 2 O 3 ( s )+Heat MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGgbGaamyza8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWG pbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG4maaWdaeqaaOWaaeWaaeaapeGaam4Caa WdaiaawIcacaGLPaaapeGaey4kaSIaaGOmaiaaykW7caWGbbGaamiB a8aadaqadaqaa8qacaWGZbaapaGaayjkaiaawMcaa8qacqGHsgIRca aIYaGaaGPaVlaadAeacaWGLbWdamaabmaabaWdbiaadYgaa8aacaGL OaGaayzkaaWdbiabgUcaRiaadgeacaWGSbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG OmaaWdaeqaaOWdbiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaGc daqadaqaa8qacaWGZbaapaGaayjkaiaawMcaa8qacqGHRaWkcaWGib GaamyzaiaadggacaWG0baaaa@5A98@

Question 42

When a metal X is treated with cold water, it gives a basic salt Y with molecular formula XOH ( Molecular mass=40 ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGybGaam4taiaadIeacaqGGaWdamaabmaabaWdbiaad2eacaWG VbGaamiBaiaadwgacaWGJbGaamyDaiaadYgacaWGHbGaamOCaiaabc cacaWGTbGaamyyaiaadohacaWGZbGaeyypa0JaaGinaiaaicdaa8aa caGLOaGaayzkaaaaaa@4A28@  and liberates a gas Z which easily catches fire. Identify X, Y and Z and also write the reaction involved.

Solution:

X  Na Y  NaOH Z   H 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGceaqabeaaqaaaaa aaaaWdbiaadIfacaqGGaGaaiifGiaabccacaWGobGaamyyaaqaeama caWGzbGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaamOtaiaadggacaWGpbGaamisaa qaeamacaWGAbGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaamisa8aadaWgaaWcbaWd biaaikdaa8aabeaaaaaa@4730@

Y  NaOH MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGzbGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaamOtaiaadggacaWGpbGaamis aaaa@3C4C@

Z   H 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGAbGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaamisa8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaa ikdaa8aabeaaaaa@3AA8@

Reaction involved

. 2Na+2 H 2 O2NaOH+ H 2 +Heat energy MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaaIYaGaaGPaVlaad6eacaWGHbGaey4kaSIaaGOmaiaaykW7caWG ibWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaOWdbiaad+eacqGHsgIRca aIYaGaaGPaVlaad6eacaWGHbGaam4taiaadIeacqGHRaWkcaWGibWd amaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaOWdbiabgUcaRiaadIeacaWGLb GaamyyaiaadshacaqGGaGaamyzaiaad6gacaWGLbGaamOCaiaadEga caWG5baaaa@5512@ .

Question 43

A non-metal X exists in two different forms Y and Z. Y is the hardest natural substance, whereas Z is a good conductor of electricity. Identify X, Y and Z.

Solution:

X MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbmLMB1H hicL2BSLMB11garmWu51MyVXgaruWqVvNCPvMCG4uz3bqefqvATv2C G4uz3bIuV1wyUbqee0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlh91rFfeu0dXdh9vqqj =hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXd ar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaada abauaaaOqaaGabaKqzagaeaaaaaaaaa8qacaWFuacaaa@3D55@  Carbon

Y MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbmLMB1H hicL2BSLMB11garmWu51MyVXgaruWqVvNCPvMCG4uz3bqefqvATv2C G4uz3bIuV1wyUbqee0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlh91rFfeu0dXdh9vqqj =hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXd ar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaada abauaaaOqaaGabaKqzagaeaaaaaaaaa8qacaWFuacaaa@3D55@  Diamond

Z MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbmLMB1H hicL2BSLMB11garmWu51MyVXgaruWqVvNCPvMCG4uz3bqefqvATv2C G4uz3bIuV1wyUbqee0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlh91rFfeu0dXdh9vqqj =hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXd ar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaada abauaaaOqaaGabaKqzagaeaaaaaaaaa8qacaWFuacaaa@3D55@  Graphite

Question 44

The following reaction takes place when aluminium powder is heated with Mn O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGnbGaamOBaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaaa aa@3997@

3 MnO 2 ( s )+4Al( s )3Mn( l )+2 Al 2 O 3 ( l )+Heat MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaqGZaGaaGPaVlaab2eacaqGUbGaae4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaa bkdaa8aabeaakmaabmaabaWdbiaabohaa8aacaGLOaGaayzkaaWdbi aabUcacaqG0aGaaGPaVlaabgeacaqGSbWdamaabmaabaWdbiaaboha a8aacaGLOaGaayzkaaWdbiabgkziUkaabodacaaMc8Uaaeytaiaab6 gapaWaaeWaaeaapeGaaeiBaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaapeGaae4kaiaa bkdacaaMc8UaaeyqaiaabYgapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaqGYaaapaqaba GcpeGaae4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaabodaa8aabeaakmaabmaabaWd biaabYgaa8aacaGLOaGaayzkaaWdbiaabUcacaqGibGaaeyzaiaabg gacaqG0baaaa@5D21@

(a) Is aluminium getting reduced?

(b) Is Mn O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGnbGaamOBaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaaa aa@3997@  getting oxidised?

Solution:

(a) No. In the given reaction, oxygen is added to aluminium. Therefore, aluminium is getting oxidized.

(b) No. In the given reaction, manganese loses oxygen. Therefore, manganese is reduced, not oxidised.

Question 45

What are the constituents of solder alloy? Which property of solder makes it suitable for welding electrical wires?

Solution:

The constituents of solder alloy are lead and tin. The property of solder that makes it suitable for welding electrical wires is its low melting point.

Question 46

A metal A, which is used in thermite process, when heated with oxygen gives an oxide B, which is amphoteric in nature. Identify A and B. Write down the reactions of oxide B with HCl MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibGaam4qaiaadYgaaaa@389C@  and NaOH MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGobGaamyyaiaad+eacaWGibaaaa@3970@ .

Solution:

A  Al B  A l 2 O 3 A l 2 O 3 +6HCl2AlC l 3 +3 H 2 O A l 2 O 3 +2NaOH2NaAl O 2 + H 2 O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGceaqabeaaqaaaaa aaaaWdbiaadgeacaqGGaGaaiifGiaabccacaWGbbGaamiBaaqaeama caWGcbGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaamyqaiaadYgapaWaaSbaaSqaa8 qacaaIYaaapaqabaGcpeGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaiodaa8aa beaaaOqaeamapeGaamyqaiaadYgapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapa qabaGcpeGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaiodaa8aabeaak8qacqGH RaWkcaaI2aGaaGPaVlaadIeacaWGdbGaamiBaiabgkziUkaaikdaca aMc8UaamyqaiaadYgacaWGdbGaamiBa8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaioda a8aabeaak8qacqGHRaWkcaaIZaGaaGPaVlaadIeapaWaaSbaaSqaa8 qacaaIYaaapaqabaGcpeGaam4taaqaeamacaWGbbGaamiBa8aadaWg aaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG 4maaWdaeqaaOWdbiabgUcaRiaaikdacaaMc8UaamOtaiaadggacaWG pbGaamisaiabgkziUkaaikdacaaMc8UaamOtaiaadggacaWGbbGaam iBaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaGcpeGaey4kaSIa amisa8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWGpbaaaaa@76D0@  

Question 47

A metal that exists as a liquid at room temperature is obtained by heating its sulphide in the presence of air. Identify the metal and its ore and give the reaction involved.

Solution:

The metal is mercury. It is liquid at room temperature. It can be obtained by heating its ore, cinnabar (HgS) in air to convert it into mercury oxide. The oxide is then reduced to mercury by further heating.

The reactions are as follows:

2HgS+3 O 2 Heat 2HgO+2S O 2 2HgO Heat 2Hg+ O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGceaqabeaaqaaaaa aaaaWdbiaaikdacaaMc8UaamisaiaadEgacaWGtbGaey4kaSIaaG4m aiaaykW7caWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaOWaa4ajaS qaaiaadIeacaWGLbGaamyyaiaadshaaeqakiaawkzia8qacaaIYaGa aGPaVlaadIeacaWGNbGaam4taiabgUcaRiaaikdacaaMc8Uaam4uai aad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaaakeabadWdbiaaikda caaMc8UaamisaiaadEgacaWGpbWdamaaoqcaleaacaWGibGaamyzai aadggacaWG0baabeGccaGLsgcapeGaaGOmaiaaykW7caWGibGaam4z aiabgUcaRiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaaaaaa@61AD@

Question 48

Give the formulae of the stable binary compounds that would be formed by the combination of following pairs of elements.

(a) Mg and  N 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGnbGaam4zaiaabccacaWGHbGaamOBaiaadsgacaqGGaGaamOt a8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaaaaa@3D97@

(b) Li and  O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGmbGaamyAaiaabccacaWGHbGaamOBaiaadsgacaqGGaGaam4t a8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaaaaa@3D99@

(c) Al and C l 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGbbGaamiBaiaabccacaWGHbGaamOBaiaadsgacaqGGaGaam4q aiaadYgapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaaaaa@3E76@

(d) K and  O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGlbGaaeiiaiaadggacaWGUbGaamizaiaabccacaWGpbWdamaa BaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaaaa@3CAA@

Solution:

(a) M g 3 N 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGnbGaam4za8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaiodaa8aabeaak8qacaWG obWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaaaa@3AC0@

(b) L i 2 O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGmbGaamyAa8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWG pbaaaa@39AB@

(c) AlC l 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGbbGaamiBaiaadoeacaWGSbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG4maaWd aeqaaaaa@3A6F@

(d) K 2 O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGlbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaOWdbiaad+eaaaa@38BC@

Question 49

What happens when:

(a) ZnC O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGAbGaamOBaiaadoeacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG4maaWd aeqaaaaa@3A6D@  is heated in the absence of oxygen?

(b) A mixture of C u 2 O and C u 2 S MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDa8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWG pbGaaeiiaiaadggacaWGUbGaamizaiaabccacaWGdbGaamyDa8aada WgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWGtbaaaa@4180@  is heated?

Solution:

(a) When ZnC O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGAbGaamOBaiaadoeacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG4maaWd aeqaaaaa@3A6D@  is heated in the absence of oxygen, it undergoes calcination.

ZnC O 3   Heat ZnO+C O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGAbGaamOBaiaadoeacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG4maaWd aeqaaOWdbiaacckadaGdKaWcbaGaamisaiaadwgacaWGHbGaamiDaa qabOGaayPKHaGaamOwaiaad6gacaWGpbGaey4kaSIaam4qaiaad+ea paWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaaaaa@4713@

(b) When a mixture of C u 2 O  MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDa8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWG pbGaaiiOaaaa@3AD2@  and C u 2 S MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDa8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWG tbaaaa@39B2@  is heated, it undergoes auto reduction forming copper and sulphur dioxide.

2C u 2 O+C u 2 S Heat 6Cu+S O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaaIYaGaaGPaVlaadoeacaWG1bWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWd aeqaaOWdbiaad+eacqGHRaWkcaWGdbGaamyDa8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbi aaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWGtbWaa4ajaSqaaiaadIeacaWGLbGaamyy aiaadshaaeqakiaawkziaiaaykW7caaI2aGaaGPaVlaadoeacaWG1b Gaey4kaSIaam4uaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaaa aa@4F0B@  

Question 50

A non-metal A is an important constituent of our food and forms two oxides B and C. Oxide B is toxic whereas C causes global warming

(a) Identify A, B and C

(b) To which Group of Periodic Table does A belong?

Solution:

(a) A is carbon, B is carbon monoxide and C is carbon dioxide.

(b) A belongs to Group MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbmLMB1H hicL2BSLMB11garmWu51MyVXgaruWqVvNCPvMCG4uz3bqefqvATv2C G4uz3bIuV1wyUbqee0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlh91rFfeu0dXdh9vqqj =hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXd ar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaada abauaaaOqaaGabaKqzagaeaaaaaaaaa8qacaWFtacaaa@3D54@  14 of the periodic table.

Question 51

Give two examples each of the metals that are good conductors and poor conductors of heat respectively.

Solution:

(a) The metals which are good conductors of heat and electricity are silver (Ag) and copper (Cu).

(b) The metals which are poor conductors of heat and electricity are lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg).

Question 52

Name one metal and one non-metal that exist in liquid state at room temperature. Also, name two metals having melting point less than 310 K ( 37° C ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaaIZaGaaGymaiaaicdacaqGGaGaam4saiaabccapaWaaeWaaeaa peGaaG4maiaaiEdacqGHWcaScaqGGaGaam4qaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPa aaaaa@40EA@ .

Solution:

Metal MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbmLMB1H hicL2BSLMB11garmWu51MyVXgaruWqVvNCPvMCG4uz3bqefqvATv2C G4uz3bIuV1wyUbqee0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlh91rFfeu0dXdh9vqqj =hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXd ar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaada abauaaaOqaaGabaKqzagaeaaaaaaaaa8qacaWFtacaaa@3D54@  mercury (Hg)

Non-metal MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbmLMB1H hicL2BSLMB11garmWu51MyVXgaruWqVvNCPvMCG4uz3bqefqvATv2C G4uz3bIuV1wyUbqee0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlh91rFfeu0dXdh9vqqj =hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXd ar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaada abauaaaOqaaGabaKqzagaeaaaaaaaaa8qacaWFtacaaa@3D54@  bromine (Br)

Two metals with melting point less than 310 K are caesium (Cs) and gallium (Ga)

Question 53

An element A reacts with water to form a compound B which is used in white washing. The compound B on heating forms an oxide C which on treatment with water gives back B. Identify A, Band C and give the reactions involved.

Solution:

A  Ca B  Ca ( OH ) 2 C  CaO Ca( s )+2 H 2 OCa ( OH ) 2 ( aq )+ H 2 ( g ) Ca ( OH ) 2 Heat   CaO+ H 2 O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGceaqabeaaqaaaaa aaaaWdbiaadgeacaqGGaGaaiifGiaabccacaWGdbGaamyyaaqaeama caWGcbGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaam4qaiaadggapaWaaeWaaeaape Gaam4taiaadIeaa8aacaGLOaGaayzkaaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaa paqabaaakeabadWdbiaadoeacaqGGaGaaiifGiaabccacaWGdbGaam yyaiaad+eaaeabadGaam4qaiaadggapaWaaeWaaeaapeGaam4CaaWd aiaawIcacaGLPaaapeGaey4kaSIaaGOmaiaaykW7caWGibWdamaaBa aaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaOWdbiaad+eacqGHsgIRcaWGdbGaamyy a8aadaqadaqaa8qacaWGpbGaamisaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaadaWgaa WcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaakmaabmaabaWdbiaadggacaWGXbaapaGa ayjkaiaawMcaa8qacqGHRaWkcaWGibWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaa WdaeqaaOWaaeWaaeaapeGaam4zaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaaaeabadWd biaadoeacaWGHbWdamaabmaabaWdbiaad+eacaWGibaapaGaayjkai aawMcaamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaOWaa4ajaSqaaiaadIea caWGLbGaamyyaiaadshaaeqakiaawkzia8qacaGGGcGaaiiOaiaado eacaWGHbGaam4taiabgUcaRiaadIeapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaa paqabaGcpeGaam4taaaaaa@7B1A@

Question 54

An alkali metal A gives a compound B (molecular mass = 40) on reacting with water. The compound B gives a soluble compound C on treatment with aluminium oxide.  Identify A, B and C and give the reaction involved.

Solution:

A  Na B  NaOH C  NaAl O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGceaqabeaaqaaaaa aaaaWdbiaadgeacaqGGaGaaiifGiaabccacaWGobGaamyyaaqaeama caWGcbGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaamOtaiaadggacaWGpbGaamisaa qaeamacaWGdbGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaamOtaiaadggacaWGbbGa amiBaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaaaaaa@4A62@

Reactions involved

2Na+2 H 2 O2NaOH+ H 2 A l 2 O 3 +2NaOH2NaAl O 2 + H 2 O MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGceaqabeaaqaaaaa aaaaWdbiaaikdacaaMc8UaamOtaiaadggacqGHRaWkcaaIYaGaaGPa VlaadIeapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaGcpeGaam4taiabgk ziUkaaikdacaaMc8UaamOtaiaadggacaWGpbGaamisaiabgUcaRiaa dIeapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaaakeabadWdbiaadgeaca WGSbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaOWdbiaad+eapaWaaSba aSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaGcpeGaey4kaSIaaGOmaiaaykW7caWGob Gaamyyaiaad+eacaWGibGaeyOKH4QaaGOmaiaaykW7caWGobGaamyy aiaadgeacaWGSbGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8 qacqGHRaWkcaWGibWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaOWdbiaa d+eaaaaa@63E4@

Question 55

Give the reaction involved during extraction of zinc from its ore by

(a) Roasting of zinc ore

(b) Calcination of zinc ore

Solution:

(a) 2ZnS( s )+3 O 2   Heat 2ZnO( s )+2S O 2 ( g ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaaIYaGaaGPaVlaadQfacaWGUbGaam4ua8aadaqadaqaa8qacaWG ZbaapaGaayjkaiaawMcaa8qacqGHRaWkcaaIZaGaaGPaVlaad+eapa WaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaGcpeGaaiiOamaaoqcaleaacaWG ibGaamyzaiaadggacaWG0baabeGccaGLsgcacaaIYaGaaGPaVlaadQ facaWGUbGaam4ta8aadaqadaqaa8qacaWGZbaapaGaayjkaiaawMca a8qacqGHRaWkcaaIYaGaaGPaVlaadofacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaape GaaGOmaaWdaeqaaOWaaeWaaeaapeGaam4zaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaa aaa@594D@

(b) ZnC O 3 ( s )  Heat  ZnO( s )+C O 2 ( g ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGAbGaamOBaiaadoeacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG4maaWd aeqaaOWaaeWaaeaapeGaam4CaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaapeGaaiiOam aaoqcaleaacaWGibGaamyzaiaadggacaWG0baabeGccaGLsgcacaGG GcGaamOwaiaad6gacaWGpbWdamaabmaabaWdbiaadohaa8aacaGLOa GaayzkaaWdbiabgUcaRiaadoeacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOm aaWdaeqaaOWaaeWaaeaapeGaam4zaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaaaaa@5034@

Question 56

A metal M does not liberate hydrogen from acids but reacts with oxygen to give a black colour product. Identify M and black coloured product and also explain the reaction of M with oxygen.

Solution:

The metal M is copper (Cu) which is less reactive and does not liberate hydrogen from acids.

Copper reacts with oxygen and forms a black coloured product, copper(II) oxide (CuO).

Reaction involved: 2Cu+ O 2 2CuO MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaaIYaGaaGPaVlaadoeacaWG1bGaey4kaSIaam4ta8aadaWgaaWc baWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacqGHsgIRcaaIYaGaaGPaVlaadoeaca WG1bGaam4taaaa@43A1@

Question 57

An element forms an oxide A 2 O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGbbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaOWdbiaad+eapaWa aSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaaaaa@39C9@  which is acidic in nature. Identify A as a metal or non-metal.

Solution:

Since the oxide of the element is acidic in nature, A is a non-metal.

Question 58

A solution of CuS O 4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDaiaadofacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGinaaWd aeqaaaaa@3A6E@  was kept in an iron pot. After few days, the iron pot was found to have a number of holes in it. Explain the reason in terms of reactivity. Write the equation of the reaction involved.

Solution:

Since iron ( Fe MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGgbGaamyzaaaa@37CB@  )is more reactive than copper ( Cu MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDaaaa@37D8@  ), it displaces copper from copper sulphate solution ( CuS O 4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDaiaadofacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGinaaWd aeqaaaaa@3A6E@  ) and forms iron sulphate ( FeS O 4 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGgbGaamyzaiaadofacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGinaaWd aeqaaaaa@3A61@  ). This reaction results in the formation of holes in the iron pot.

The equation of the reaction is as follows:

Fe+CuS O 4 FeS O 4 +Cu MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGgbGaamyzaiabgUcaRiaadoeacaWG1bGaam4uaiaad+eapaWa aSbaaSqaa8qacaaI0aaapaqabaGcpeGaeyOKH4QaamOraiaadwgaca WGtbGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaisdaa8aabeaak8qacqGHRaWk caWGdbGaamyDaaaa@4643@

Question 59

A non-metal A which is the largest constituent of air, when heated with H 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaaaa@37F9@  in 1:3 ratio in the presence of catalyst ( Fe MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGgbGaamyzaaaa@37CB@  ) gives a gas B. On heating with O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaaaa@37D2@ , it gives an oxide C. If this oxide is passed into water in the presence of air it gives an acid D which acts as a strong oxidising agent.

(a) Identify A, B, C and D

(b) To which group of periodic table does this non-metal belong?

Solution:

(a) A   N 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGbbGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaamOta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaa ikdaa8aabeaaaaa@3A95@

     B  N H 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGcbGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaamOtaiaadIeapaWaaSbaaSqa a8qacaaIZaaapaqabaaaaa@3B64@

     C  NO MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaamOtaiaad+eaaaa@3A83@

     D  HN O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGebGaaeiiaiaacsbicaqGGaGaamisaiaad6eacaWGpbWdamaa BaaaleaapeGaaG4maaWdaeqaaaaa@3C3A@

(b) Element A belongs to the Group MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aqatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbmLMB1H hicL2BSLMB11garmWu51MyVXgaruWqVvNCPvMCG4uz3bqefqvATv2C G4uz3bIuV1wyUbqee0evGueE0jxyaibaieYlh91rFfeu0dXdh9vqqj =hEeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqaq=JfrVkFHe9pgea0dXd ar=Jb9hs0dXdbPYxe9vr0=vr0=vqpWqaaeaabiGaciaacaqabeaada abauaaaOqaaGabaKqzagaeaaaaaaaaa8qacaWFtacaaa@3D54@  15 of the periodic table

Question 60

Give the steps involved in the extraction of metals of low and medium reactivity from their respective sulphide ores.

Solution:

Question 61

Explain the following:

(a) Reactivity of Al decreases if it is dipped in HN O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGibGaamOtaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaaa aa@3973@

(b) Carbon cannot reduce the oxides of Na or Mg

(c) NaCl is not a conductor of electricity in solid state whereas it does conduct electricity in aqueous solution as well as in molten state

(d) Iron articles are galvanised.

(e) Metals like Na, K, Ca and Mg are never found in their free state in nature.

Solution:

a) Due to the formation of an oxide layer i.e., A l 2 O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGbbGaamiBa8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWG pbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaG4maaWdaeqaaaaa@3ABA@ , the reactivity of Al decreases.

(b) Compared to carbon (C), sodium (Na) and magnesium (Mg) are more reactive metals. Hence, carbon cannot reduce the oxides of Na or Mg.

(c) Due to its rigid structure, the movement of ions is not possible in solid NaCl. Hence it is not a conductor of electricity in the solid state. But in an aqueous solution or in molten state, the ions can move freely. Hence, it conducts electricity.

(d) Iron articles are galvanised to protect them from corrosion.

(e) Na, K, Ca and Mg are highly reactive. Hence, they are never found in their free states in nature.

Question 62

(i) Given below are the steps for extraction of copper from its ore. Write the reaction involved.

(a) Roasting of copper(1) sulphide

(b) Reduction of copper(1) oxide with copper(1) sulphide.

(c) Electrolytic refining

(ii) Draw a neat and well labelled diagram for electrolytic refining of copper

Solution:

(i) 

(a) Roasting of sulphide ore:

2C u 2 S( s )+3 O 2 ( s )  Heat 2C u 2 O( s )+2S O 2 ( g ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaaIYaGaaGPaVlaadoeacaWG1bWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWd aeqaaOWdbiaadofapaWaaeWaaeaapeGaam4CaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPa aapeGaey4kaSIaaG4maiaaykW7caWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOm aaWdaeqaaOWaaeWaaeaapeGaam4CaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaapeGaai iOamaaoqcaleaacaWGibGaamyzaiaadggacaWG0baabeGccaGLsgca caaIYaGaaGPaVlaadoeacaWG1bWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdae qaaOWdbiaad+eapaWaaeWaaeaapeGaam4CaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaa peGaey4kaSIaaGOmaiaaykW7caWGtbGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbi aaikdaa8aabeaakmaabmaabaWdbiaadEgaa8aacaGLOaGaayzkaaaa aa@5E2D@

(b) 2C u 2 O+C u 2 S Heat 6Cu( s )+S O 2 ( g ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaaIYaGaaGPaVlaadoeacaWG1bWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWd aeqaaOWdbiaad+eacqGHRaWkcaWGdbGaamyDa8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbi aaikdaa8aabeaak8qacaWGtbWaa4ajaSqaaiaadIeacaWGLbGaamyy aiaadshaaeqakiaawkziaiaaiAdacaaMc8Uaam4qaiaadwhapaWaae WaaeaapeGaam4CaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaapeGaey4kaSIaam4uaiaa d+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaGcdaqadaqaa8qacaWGNb aapaGaayjkaiaawMcaaaaa@52DD@

(c)  Reaction for electrolytic refining:

At cathode: C u 2+ ( aq )+2 e Cu( s ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDa8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaaIYaGaey4kaScaaOWd amaabmaabaWdbiaadggacaWGXbaapaGaayjkaiaawMcaa8qacqGHRa WkcaaIYaGaamyza8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaGGtacaaOGaeyOKH4Qa am4qaiaadwhapaWaaeWaaeaapeGaam4CaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaaaa a@4734@

At anode: Cu( s )C u 2+ ( aq )+2 e MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaamyDa8aadaqadaqaa8qacaWGZbaapaGaayjkaiaawMca a8qacqGHsgIRcaWGdbGaamyDa8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaaIYaGaey 4kaScaaOWdamaabmaabaWdbiaadggacaWGXbaapaGaayjkaiaawMca a8qacqGHRaWkcaaIYaGaamyza8aadaahaaWcbeqaa8qacaGGtacaaa aa@473A@

(ii) Diagram for electrolytic refining of copper:

Question 63

Of the three metals X, Y and Z.  X reacts with cold water, Y with hot water and Z with steam only. Identify X, Y and Z and also arrange them in order of increasing reactivity.

Solution:

·         X is a metal alkali. It can be either sodium or potassium.

·         Y is an alkaline metal. It can be either magnesium or calcium.

·         The metal which reacts with steam only is iron.

The increasing reactivity series of the metals are Na>Mg>Fe MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVu0Je9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGobGaamyyaiabg6da+iaad2eacaWGNbGaeyOpa4JaamOraiaa dwgaaaa@3D52@ .

Question 64

An element A burns with golden flame in air. It reacts with another element B, atomic number 17 to give a product C. An aqueous solution of product C on electrolysis gives a compound D and liberates hydrogen. Identify A, B, C and D. Also, write down the equations for the reactions involved.

Solution:

A=Na B=C l 2 C=NaCl D=NaOH MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xh9vqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGceaqabeaacaqGbb Gaaeypaiaab6eacaqGHbaabqaWaabaaaaaaaaapeGaaeOqaiabg2da 9iaadoeacaWGSbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOmaaWdaeqaaaGcbqaWa8 qacaqGdbGaeyypa0JaamOtaiaadggacaWGdbGaamiBaaqaeamacaqG ebGaeyypa0JaamOtaiaadggacaWGpbGaamisaaaaaa@4AC2@  

Equations

. 2Na+C l 2 2NaCl 2NaCl( aq )+2 H 2 O( l )2NaOH( aq )+C l 2 ( g )+ H 2 ( g ) MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGceaqabeaaqaaaaa aaaaWdbiaaikdacaaMc8UaamOtaiaadggacqGHRaWkcaWGdbGaamiB a8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaak8qacqGHsgIRcaaIYaGaaG PaVlaad6eacaWGHbGaam4qaiaadYgaaeabadGaaGOmaiaaykW7caWG obGaamyyaiaadoeacaWGSbWdamaabmaabaWdbiaadggacaWGXbaapa GaayjkaiaawMcaa8qacqGHRaWkcaaIYaGaaGPaVlaadIeapaWaaSba aSqaa8qacaaIYaaapaqabaGcpeGaam4ta8aadaqadaqaa8qacaWGSb aapaGaayjkaiaawMcaa8qacqGHsgIRcaaIYaGaaGPaVlaad6eacaWG HbGaam4taiaadIeapaWaaeWaaeaapeGaamyyaiaadghaa8aacaGLOa GaayzkaaWdbiabgUcaRiaadoeacaWGSbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOm aaWdaeqaaOWaaeWaaeaapeGaam4zaaWdaiaawIcacaGLPaaapeGaey 4kaSIaamisa8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaakmaabmaabaWd biaadEgaa8aacaGLOaGaayzkaaaaaaa@6F25@ .

Question 65

Two ores A and B were taken. On heating, ore A gives C O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaaaaa@389A@  whereas, ore B gives S O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGtbGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaaaaa@38AA@ . What steps will you take to convert them into metals?

Solution:

On heating, ore A gives C O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGdbGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaaaaa@389A@  and ore B gives S O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGtbGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaikdaa8aabeaaaaa@38AA@ . Therefore, the ores are MC O 3 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGnbGaam4qaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaaa aa@396D@  and MS.

Steps to convert A into a metal:

MC O 3   Calcination MO+C O 2 MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGnbGaam4qaiaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIZaaapaqabaGc peGaaiiOamaaoqcaleaacaWGdbGaamyyaiaadYgacaWGJbGaamyAai aad6gacaWGHbGaamiDaiaadMgacaWGVbGaamOBaaqabOGaayPKHaGa amytaiaad+eacqGHRaWkcaWGdbGaam4ta8aadaWgaaWcbaWdbiaaik daa8aabeaaaaa@4B99@

MO+C  Reduction  M+CO MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGcbaaeaaaaaaaaa8 qacaWGnbGaam4taiabgUcaRiaadoeacaGGGcWaa4ajaSqaaiGackfa caGGLbGaaiizaiaacwhacaGGJbGaaiiDaiaacMgacaGGVbGaaiOBaa qabOGaayPKHaGaaiiOaiaad2eacqGHRaWkcaWGdbGaam4taaaa@48BB@

Steps to convert B into a metal:

2MS+3 O 2  Roasting  2MO+2S O 2 MO+CM+CO MathType@MTEF@5@5@+= feaagKart1ev2aaatCvAUfeBSjuyZL2yd9gzLbvyNv2CaerbuLwBLn hiov2DGi1BTfMBaeXatLxBI9gBaerbd9wDYLwzYbItLDharqqtubsr 4rNCHbGeaGqiVC0xe9sqqrpepC0xbbL8F4rqqrFfpeea0xe9Lq=Jc9 vqaqpepm0xbba9pwe9Q8fs0=yqaqpepae9pg0FirpepeKkFr0xfr=x fr=xb9adbaqaaeGaciGaaiaabeqaamaabaabaaGceaqabeaaqaaaaa aaaaWdbiaaikdacaaMc8UaamytaiaadofacqGHRaWkcaaIZaGaaGPa Vlaad+eapaWaaSbaaSqaa8qacaaIYaGaaiiOaaWdaeqaaOWaa4ajaS qaaiaadkfacaWGVbGaamyyaiaadohacaWG0bGaamyAaiaad6gacaWG NbaabeGccaGLsgcapeGaaiiOaiaaikdacaaMc8Uaamytaiaad+eacq GHRaWkcaaIYaGaaGPaVlaadofacaWGpbWdamaaBaaaleaapeGaaGOm aaWdaeqaaaGcbqaWa8qacaWGnbGaam4taiabgUcaRiaadoeacqGHsg IRcaWGnbGaey4kaSIaam4qaiaad+eaaaaa@5DA0@