Lesson: Coal and Petroleum Science
Exercise:

# Question: 1

What are the advantages of using CNG and LPG as fuels?

## Solution:

The advantages of using compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as fuels are:

·         They can be directly burnt.

·         They can be easily transported through pipe lines.

·         They do not give smoke when burnt. They are clean fuels.

·         When burnt they give a lot of heat energy.

# Question: 2

Name the petroleum product used for surfacing of roads.

## Solution:

Bitumen is a petroleum product that is used for road surfacing.

# Question: 3

Describe how coal is formed from dead vegetation. What is this process called?

## Solution:

Millions of years ago due to various natural phenomenon such as storms, floods and earthquakes, dense forests got buried under the soil. As time passed, natural phenomenon such as high winds, cyclones, etc. deposited more and more soil over these buried forests. As a result, these forests were further compressed and also subjected to high pressure and temperatures emanating from deep within the earth/soil. Under these conditions, these forests slowly and slowly carbonized and converted to coal. This slow process of forming coal from dead vegetation is known as carbonization.

# Question: 4

Fill in the banks.
(a) Fossil fuels are ________, ________and _________.
(b) Process of separation of different constituents from petroleum is called

_________.
(c) Least polluting fuel for vehicles is __________.

## Solution:

a)      Fossil fuels are coal, petroleum and natural gas.

b)      Process of separation of different constituents from petroleum is called refining.

c)      Least polluting fuel for vehicles is CNG.

# Question: 5

Tick True/False against the following statements.

(a) Fossil fuels can be made in the laboratory. (T / F)
(b) CNG is more polluting fuel than petrol. (T / F)

(c) Coke is almost pure form of carbon. (T / F)

(d) Coal tar is a mixture of various substances. (T / F)

(e) Kerosene is not a fossil fuel. (T / F)

(a)   False

(b)   False

(c)   True

(d)   True

(e)   False

# Question: 6

Explain why fossil fuels are exhaustible natural resources.

## Solution:

Fossil fuels are formed from dead vegetation and animals that undergo a slow process of carbonization deep inside the Earth’s soil under high pressure and temperature. This process takes millions of years. Scientists have not been able to replicate the same environment for carbonization in the laboratories. Therefore, fossil fuels take a long time to form and always available in limited quantity.

The utilization of these fossil fuel when compared to the speed formation is much faster. This leads us to realize that fossil fuels are exhaustible natural resources.

# Question: 7

Describe characteristics and uses of coke.

## Solution:

Characteristics of coke:

·         Tough

·         Porous

·         Black in colour

Uses of coke:

·         In manufacturing of steel.

·         In Extraction of metals (as a reducing agent).

# Question: 8

Explain the process of formation of petroleum.

## Solution:

Dead organisms that got buried in the sea millions of years ago got covered with layers of sand and clay. Lack of air, high temperature, and high pressure transformed these dead organisms into petroleum and natural gas.

# Question: 9

The following Table shows the total power shortage in India from 1991 - 1997. Show the data in the form of a graph. Plot shortage percentage for the years on the Y-axis and the year on the X-axis.

 S. No. Year Shortage (%) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 7.9 7.8 8.3 7.4 7.1 9.2 11.5