Lesson: Coal and Petroleum


Question: 1

Various materials which are obtained from nature are called natural resources. Which of the following is not a natural resource?

(a) Minerals

(c) Soil

(b) Water

(d) Plastic



Question: 2

Air is a natural resource and cannot be exhausted by human activities.

It is known as inexhaustible natural resource.

Which of the following is another inexhaustible natural resource?

(a) Coal

(b) Petroleum

(c) Sun-light

(d) Minerals



Question: 3

Which of the following is a pair of exhaustible natural resources?

(a) Coal and soil

(b) Air and sun-light

(c) Water and petroleum

(d) Wild life and minerals



Question: 4

Coal is processed in industries to get some useful products.

Which of the following is not obtained from coal?

(a) Coke

(b) Coal tar

(c) Coal gas

(d) CNG



Question: 5

Exhaustible natural resources are:

(a) Unlimited in quantity.

(b) Not dependent on nature.

(c) Limited in quantity.

(d) Not exhausted by human activities.



Question: 6

Fossil fuels are obtained from:

(a) Remains of non-living materials.

(b) Dead remains of birds only.

(c) Dead remains of insects only.

(d) Dead remains of living organisms.



Question: 7

Coal is formed from the remains of:

(a) Vegetation only

(b) Animals only

(c) Both vegetation and animals

(d) Neither vegetation nor animals



Question: 8

Which substance is formed by the carbonisation of dead vegetation?

(a) Coal

(b) Coke

(c) Coal gas

(d) Coal tar



Question: 9

Naphthalene balls are obtained from coal tar and are used as

(a) Mosquito repellent

(b) Honey bee repellent

(c) Moth repellent

(d) Snake repellent



Question: 10

Which of the following is not a constituent of petroleum?

(a) Paraffin wax

(b) Lubricating oil

(c) Petrol

(d) Coke




Question: 11

Petroleum was formed from organisms:

(a) Living on the land

(b) Living on the plants

(c) Living in the sea

(d) Living on the rocks




Question: 12

Choose the correct statement from the following:

(a)   It is difficult to transport natural gas through pipes.

(b)   The disadvantage of natural gas is that it cannot be used directly for burning in homes.

(c)   Natural gas is stored under high pressure as compressed natural gas.

(d)   Natural gas cannot be used for power generation.



Question: 13

You are provided with a mixture of petroleum and water.

Can you suggest a method to separate the two?



Question: 14

What does CNG stand for and why is it considered to be a better fuel than petrol?


CNG stands for Compressed Natural Gas.

When compared with petrol, CNG is considered to be a better fuel, because it is less polluting.

Question: 15

Name the petroleum product used as fuel for stoves, lamps and jet aircrafts.


The petroleum product that is used as fuel for stoves, lamps and jet aircrafts is kerosene.

Question: 16

Fill in the blanks in the following sentences.

(a) Coal is one of the ________ used to cook food.

(b) When heated in air, coal burns and produces mainly ________gas.

(c) Coal tar is a black, thick ________ with an ________ smell.

(d) Petroleum, ________ and ________ are fossil fuels.

(e) Forests and coal are ________ natural resources.


(a) Fuels

(b) Carbon dioxide

(c) Liquid, unpleasant

(d) Coal, natural gas

(e) Exhaustible

Question: 17

The underlined words in the following sentences have been jumbled up.

Write them in their correct form:

(a) Loca is obtained from mines.

(b) Umpetlore is a fossil fuel.

(c) Rineryfe is a place where various fractions of petroleum are separated.

(d) Keenrose is a fuel used in jet crafts.

(e) Nutsgilh is an example of inexhaustible natural resources.


(a) Coal

(b) Petroleum

(c) Refinery

(d) Kerosene

(e) Sunlight

Question: 18

Fill in the blanks.

(a)   The slow process of conversion of dead vegetation into coal is called


(b)   Coal and petroleum are formed from the dead remains of organisms and are known as __________.

(c)   The black thick liquid with __________ smell is known as coal tar.

(d)   During the processing of coal to get coke, coal tar and__________ are also


(e)   The process of separating the various constituents of petroleum is known as


(f)    Excessive burning of fossil fuels is a major cause of __________.


(a) Carbonisation

(b) Fossil fuels

(c) Unpleasant

(d) Coal gas

(e) Refining

(f) Air pollution

Question: 19

Write True/False against the following statements.

(a)   Oxygen in air is an exhaustible natural resource.

(b)   Resources which are present in unlimited quantity in nature are called exhaustible natural resources.

(c)   Wildlife is an exhaustible natural resource.

(d)   Under high temperature and pressure, dead plants get slowly converted to coal.

(e)   CNG is less polluting fuel than petrol and diesel.


(a) False

(b) False

(c) True

(d) True

(e) True


Question: 20

Sunlight and air are inexhaustible natural resources. Comment.


In nature sunlight and air are available in unlimited quantities, and are not likely to be exhausted by human activities.

Question: 21

Some natural resources are given in a box.

Classify them into the exhaustible and inexhaustible natural resources.

Air, coal, natural gas, sunlight, petroleum, minerals, forests, oxygen.


Coal, natural gas, petroleum, minerals, forests are exhaustible natural resources. Other natural resources, such as air, sunlight, oxygen are inexhaustible.

Question: 22

Write two important uses of coke.


Coke is used for the manufacture of steel and for extraction of metals.

Question: 23

Write the characteristics and some important uses of coal.


Coal is black in colour and hard as a stone. Earlier, coal was used by railways to produce steam to run rail engines. Coal is also used as a fuel in large thermal plants to produce energy. It is also used as a household fuel for cooking and heating.

Question: 24

Look at the figure where petroleum and natural gas deposits are shown.

Why do we find oil layer above water layer?


Oil is lighter than water and therefore floats over it. For this reason, layer of oil is found above the water layer.

Question: 25

Fill in the blanks and complete the story:

About 300 million years ago the earth had dense ________ in low lying wetland areas.

Due to natural processes, like ______, these forests got buried under the ________.

As more ________ deposited over them, they were compressed.

The ________ also rose as they sank deeper and deeper.

Under high ________ and high ________, dead plants got slowly converted into coal.


Forests, floods, soil, soil, temperature, pressure, temperature

Question: 26

Match the items given in Column I with the items of Column II.

Column I

Column II

(a) Used for road surfacing

(i) Black gold

(b) Natural gas

(ii) Vaseline and candles

(c) Petroleum

(iii) Bitumen

(d) Paraffin wax

(iv) CNG


(a) (iii)

(b) (iv)

(c) (i)

(d) (ii)


Question: 27

Name the products obtained and their uses when coal is processed in industry.


Coke, coal tar and coal gas are all by products of coal that is processed in industries. Coke is used for extraction of metals and in the manufacture of steel. Coal tar is used as a starting material for manufacturing synthetic dyes, drugs, explosives, perfumes and paints.  Coal gas is used as fuel.

Question: 28

We say fossil fuels will last only for a few hundred years. Comment.


Fossil fuels take a very long time to form under specific conditions of temperature and pressure. Therefore, the limited stock currently available with us as fossil fuel will last for only a few hundred years.

Question: 29

We read in newspapers that burning of fuels is a major cause of global warming. Explain why.


When fuels are burned, they produce carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, which is a major cause of global warming. Burning fuels also releases harmful pollutants like sulphur dioxide etc. All the pollutants released by burning fuels lead to warming up of the global atmosphere.

Question: 30

While driving what are the tips, we must follow, to save petrol/diesel/natural gas?


(a) Ensure that tyre pressure is correct.

(b) Ensure that vehicle is regularly maintained.

(c) Drive at a constant and moderate speed.

(d) Ensure switching off the car engine at traffic lights and at a places where one needs to wait for a long time.

Question: 31

Imagine that all the exhaustible natural resources are exhausted by human activities. Do you think survival of living beings would be possible?

If yes, why? If not, why not?


(This is an open-ended question. The student should imagine and write)

While writing, students should keep in mind the following points.

·         Name the exhaustible natural resources

·         Utility of these exhaustible natural resources for humans

·         Availability of alternate fuels

Question: 32

Why petrol is exhaustible natural resource, whereas sunlight is not?



Petrol is formed slowly over a period of million years from remains of dead organisms. Therefore, we have a limited quantity of this resource. Continuous use of petrol will eventually deplete this limited resource stock, before more petrol can be formed. On the other hand, sunlight is available in unlimited quantity in nature. Also, sunlight as a natural resource is not diminished because of human use.

Question: 33

Write some important uses of the various constituents of petroleum.


(a)   Petroleum gas in liquid form (LPG) -- it is used as fuel for home and industry.

(b)   Petrol -- it is used as fuel for aviation and automobile industry.

(c)   Kerosene -- it is used as fuel for stoves, lamps and for flying jet aircrafts.

(d)   Diesel -- it is used as fuel for running heavy motor vehicles and generators that produce electricity.

(e)   Lubricating oil -- it is used for lubrication of various engine parts and parts of various machines.

(f)    Paraffin wax -- it is used in ointments, candles and vase line etc.

(g)   Bitumen -- it is used in paints and for road surfacing.

Question: 34

Coal reserves are said to be enough to last for another hundred years.

Do you think we need to worry in such case?  Why or why not?


Open ended question. The student should write their views.

While writing the answer, students must keep in mind the following points.

·         Time taken to form coal deposits

·         Time take to utilise coal deposits

·         Availabilities of alternate fuels

Question: 35

What steps would you suggest for the judicious use of fossil fuels?


Open ended questions. The student should write their ideas.

While writing the answer, students must keep in mind the following points.

·         Name a few fossil fuels.

·         Mention time taken to form fossil fuel deposits.

·         Mention time taken to utilise all the fossil fuels available in nature today.

·         Name a few alternates of fossil fuels.

·         Mention advantages of using fossil fuels.

·         Mention advantages of using alternate fuels.

Question: 36

Complete the crossword given below with the help of the clues:


1. Fuels obtained from dead remains of living organisms. (6,5)

2. A process by which the various constituents of petroleum are separated. (8)

3. A porous black substance obtained from coal. (4)

4. Another name for motor fuel. (6)


5. The substance obtained by carbonisation. (4)

6. Fuel for heavy motor vehicles. (6)

7. A petroleum product used for road surfacing. (7)

8. Dead remains of sea animals got converted into it. (9)