Lesson: Crop Production and Management

# Question: 1

Which one of the following condition is not essential to grow maize?

(a) High temperature

(b) Humidity

(c) Low temperature

(d) Rainfall

c

# Question: 2

Propagation of ginger is generally done using:

(a) Seed

(b) Stem (rhizome)

(c) Root

(d) Leaf

b

# Question: 3

Which of the following statement is not true for organic manure?

(a) It enhances water holding capacity of soil.

(b) It has a balance of all plant nutrients.

(c) It provides humus to soil.

(d) It improves texture of soil.

b

# Question: 4

The term used for the process of separation of grains from chaff is:

(a) Sieving

(b) Threshing

(c) Winnowing

(d) Hand picking

c

# Question: 5

(i) Seeds require moisture for germination.

(ii) Plants can absorb nutrients mostly in dissolved form.

(iii) Irrigation protects crops from both frost and hot air currents.

(iv) Irrigation improves soil texture.

Choose the combination of statements which indicate the need to irrigate crops:

(a) (i) and (ii)

(b) (i), (ii), (iii)

(c) (i), (ii), (iii), (iv)

(d) (i) and (iii)

a

# Question: 6

Which of the following tools would a farmer use to remove weeds from the field?

(a) Hoe

(b) Plough

(c) Axe

(d) Cultivator

a

# Question: 7

Which of the following is not true for fertilizers?

(a) They increase the yield.

(b) Their excessive use disturbs the balance of nutrients in soil.

(c) They are generally used in small quantity.

(d) They are environment friendly.

d

# Question: 8

Given below are statements about the harmful effects of weeds on crop plants:

(i) They interfere in harvesting.

(ii) They help crop plants to grow healthily.

(iii) They compete with crop plants for water, nutrients, space and light.

(iv) They affect plant growth.

Choose the correct combination of statements:

(a) i, iii, iv

(b) iii only

(c) iii, iv

(d) i, ii, iii, iv

a

# Question: 9

The process of loosening and turning of soil is called:

(a) Irrigation and manuring

(b) Digging and winnowing

(c) Tilling and ploughing

(d) Harvesting and storage

c

# Question: 10

The monsoon season in our country is during the months:

(a) April to December

(b) June to September

(c) November to March

(d) January to May

b

# Question: 11

The system of irrigation where in water is supplied drop by drop near the roots of plants, is called:

(a) Pulley system

(b) Drip system

(c) Sprinkler system

(d) Lever system

b

# Question: 12

Pick out the odd one from the following words given in the box and give reason for it.

Plough, Seed Drill, Hoe, Chain Pump, Sickle:

## Solution:

Seed drill is a modern agricultural tool. It is used for depositing seeds in soil at uniform distance. It replaces the manual planting of saplings or seeds.

All other tools like plough, hoe, chain pump and sickle are traditional tools. These were used long back in agriculture.

# Question: 13

If you are given a dry piece of land for cultivation what will you do before sowing the seeds?

# Question: 14

State whether the following statements are True or False.

Correct the false statements:

(i)     Using good quality seed is the only criterion to get high yield.

(ii)  Growing different crops in different seasons in the same field will deplete the soil of nutrients.

(iii)                        All crop plants are sown as seeds in the field.

(iv) Cells of root nodules of leguminous plants fix nitrogen.

(v)   Freshly harvested grains must be dried before storing.

## Solution:

(i)     False.

Correct statement: Using good quality seed is one of the criteria to get high yield.

(ii)  False,

Correct statement: Growing the same crop in different seasons in the same field will deplete the soil of nutrients.

(iii)            False

Correct Statement: Not all crop plants are sown as seeds in the field.

(iv) False

Correct Statement: Rhizobium bacteria that are present in the nodules of the roots of leguminous plants fix atmospheric nitrogen.

(v) True

# Question: 15

During which months do farmers grow mustard in India?

## Solution:

Mustard is grown in the cool season, from October to March.

# Question: 16

Which activity of the farmer can promote growth of earthworms and microbes in the field?

## Solution:

Loosening the soil, adding organic manure to it, and maintaining high moisture level in soil, help in promoting growth of earthworms and microbes in the field.

# Question: 17

Beera, wants to practice crop rotation in his field.

Suggest a Rabi crop and a Kharif crop which will replenish his field with nitrogen.

Which crop replenishes nitrogen and why?

## Solution:

The wheat/oat is a Rabi crop that Beera could plant during summer.

When the soil is depleted of the nutrients, he could then plant the soybean/pea. These are Kharif crops and are leguminous plants too. These will therefore fix nitrogen to the soil and thereby replenish his field with nitrogen with the help of Rhizobium.

# Question: 18

Match the agricultural implements given in Column A with their use given in Column B.

Column A                                         Column B

(i) Sickle                                         (a) Ploughing

(ii) Hoe                                           (b) Sowing

(iii) Seed Drill                                (c) Harvesting

(iv) Sprinkler                                  (d) Irrigation

## Solution:

(i)               (c)

(ii)            (a)

(iii)          (b)

(iv)           (d)

# Question: 19

What are organic foods?

## Solution:

Organic foods are prepared using environment-friendly and animal-friendly farming methods. These are prepared without using chemicals like fertilizers, pesticides and weedicides.

# Question: 20

From the word puzzle given below find at least eight words which are ‘farmer’s friends.’

Classify them into living and non- living.

## Solution:

Living: Seed, Earthworm, Rhizobium, Microbes, Ox

Non-living: Plough, Urea, NPK, Manure, Hoe

# Question: 21

(a) Name the tool used with a tractor for sowing seeds in a field.

(b) What are the advantages of using this tool?

## Solution:

(a) Seed drill is a tool used with a tractor for sowing seeds in a field.

(b)The advantages of this tool are:

(i)     It saves time and labour.

(ii)  It is used to sow seeds at a precise depth and at equally spaced distance. It greatly improves the productivity of crops.

(iii)            It prevents wastage of seeds by being eaten by birds.

(iv) Seeds thereby germinate properly by using the soil moisture because these are sown at the correct depth.

# Question: 22

(a) Name the practice followed for large scale rearing of farm animals.

(b) What facilities are provided to farm animals?

## Solution:

(a) Animal husbandry

(b) Farm animals are provided with:

·         Proper food

·         Shelter

·         Periodic health check-up

·         Proper care

# Question: 23

Classify the following crops into Kharif and Rabi crops and write in the tabular column:

Maize, paddy, mustard, pea, gram, wheat, groundnut, cotton.

## Solution:

 Kharif Rabi Maize Mustard Paddy Pea Groundnut Wheat Cotton Gram

# Question: 24

Despite favourable climatic conditions, a farmer’s crop failed to give good yield. Give the possible reasons for this.

## Solution:

The possible reasons are:

·         The farmer may not have done proper preparation of soil, and manures and fertilizers may not have been properly applied.

·         Quality seeds might not have been used.

·         Proper irrigation might not have been available for the crops in the field.

·         Weeds might not have been removed, which thereby competed with the crops.

·         The farmer might not have planted the appropriate crop for the season.

# Question: 25

As a part of eco-club activity students were asked to raise a kitchen garden in the school premises. They were provided with some materials given in the box. List the other materials you would require. How will you plan the garden? Write the steps.

Note: You have been asked to use only environment friendly materials.

## Solution:

The other materials that would be required are:

a)      Land

b)      Seeds or seedlings

c)      Water

d)      Kitchen waste

Steps for raising the garden:

a)      Preparation of compost - Students will collect the kitchen waste and make compost by putting it in a pit.

b)      A piece of land identified for the garden will be dug and levelled with the help of the spade.

c)      This will be followed by sowing of seeds.

d)      After sowing of seeds, transplantation of seeds can be done, if required.

e)      Compost will be added to the garden soil to increase the fertility of the soil.

f)       With the help of the khurpi, weeds can be removed periodically.

g)      The plants should be watered regularly.

# Question: 26

Paddy is a major cereal crop in our country.

a)      In which season is paddy cultivated?

b)      Discuss the method of sowing.

c)      What measures must be taken to prevent spoilage and insect attack of harvested grains.

## Solution:

a)      Paddy is a Kharif crop. It is cultivated in the monsoon season.

b)      Sowing involves growing the seeds in a nursery and later transplanting the seedlings to the field.

c)      In order to prevent spoilage and insect attack of harvested grains, the grains are dried in the sun or smoked to reduce the moisture content. They are later stored in jute bags or grain silos. Sometimes chemical treatments are used to protect the grains, while keeping the grain, in airtight conditions, in huge grain silos protect the grains from the attack of rodents and pests.

# Question: 27

Unscramble the words related to crop production and its management and write in the boxes given beneath them.

Now, using the circled letters, form one word which is an activity carried out in fields, after maturation of crops.

## Solution:

(i) SILOS

(ii) THRESHING

(iii) IRRIGATION

(iv) RIVER

The activity that is carried out in fields after maturation of crop is harvesting.

# Question: 28

Given below is a conversation between two farmers Heera and Beera.

Heera: Brother Beera, your maize crop looks beautiful! They have grown pretty fast.

Beera: Yes, I have sprayed urea this time. What about you?

Heera: Well, I am still relying on good old cow dung. I am saving money for buying a tractor.

Beera: That’s good. Tractor saves a lot of time and labour.

Heera: Yes, it’s been very labour intensive for me and now these weeds have come up.

Beera: Try weedicides, they are very effective. Now answer the following questions.

i.            List the practices which are not environment friendly and why?

ii.            What is the advantage of modern agriculture implements over traditional ones?

iii.            Name one weedicide and the precaution farmers must take during its

application.

## Solution:

i.            Use of fertilisers and weedicides are not environment-friendly as the use of fertilizers and weedicides cause ground water contamination and several health-related issues arise in humans, from the use of fertilizers.

ii.            Modern agricultural implements reduce requirement of labour. These help in saving time, increasing productivity and protecting the crop from infections.

iii.            An example of a weedicide is 2, 4$–$D. It is diluted with water and sprayed in the fields with a sprayer. It can cause health hazard when sprayed in the field. So, farmers should cover their mouth and nose while applying this weedicide, in order to prevent its entry inside the body.

# Question: 29

For discussion:

Despite being one of the growing economies, our country still has a large section of population going hungry and malnourished.

Do you think an efficient crop production mechanism is the only solution to this? Discuss in the class what else needs to be done to root out hunger and malnutrition from our country.

## Solution:

The population of our country is increasing day by day. This is resulting in hunger and malnutrition, as sufficient food is not available for the poor.

While an efficient crop production mechanism is not the only solution to this problem, some measures that can be taken to root out hunger and malnutrition are:

·         Increasing awareness for more agricultural work

·         Protection of our environment

·         Not depleting our natural resources

·         Not wasting food

·         Use of modern methods of agriculture

·         Making best use of water

·         Using multiple cropping

# Question: 30

Terms related to agricultural practice are given below. Rearrange them in the correct sequence:

harvesting, sowing, manuring, tilling and ploughing, irrigation, de$–$weeding

## Solution:

Tilling and ploughing, sowing, manuring, irrigation, de$–$weeding, harvesting