Lesson: Wastewater Story
Name some biological impurities in water.
Bacteria and microbes
Name two chemicals that are used as disinfectants in water treatment plants.
Chlorine and ozone
Name two low cost methods of sewage disposal.
Septic tanks and composting pits
Define sullage water.
The waste water originating from kitchen is known as sullage water.
What kinds of toilets are found in hospitals and isolated buildings?
Why are untreated human excreta a health hazard?
Untreated human excreta are a health hazard as it may cause water pollution and soil pollution. It pollutes both surface water as well as ground water. Since ground water is a source of water for wells, tube wells, etc. therefore it leads to waterborne diseases like cholera, jaundice, typhoid, etc.
What are the benefits of vermi-processing toilets?
These are low water-use toilet for safe processing of human waste. Here the human excreta are decomposed with the help of earthworms. The operation of the toilet is very simple and hygienic. The human excreta is completely converted into vermi-cakes, which is a resource much needed for soil.
Define sludge and its treatment process in waste-water treatment plant.
The solid object which settles down at the bottom is called sludge. The sludge is removed with a scraper and sent to a separate tank, where it is decomposed by the anaerobic bacteria to produce biogas.
State some reasons behind the cause of improper sanitation.
· Lack of knowledge
· Large population
· Lack of social awareness
· Lack of sewage system in some areas
Why should we not throw the solid food remains down the drain?
We should not throw the solid food remains down the drain as these wastes can choke the drains. They do not allow the free flow of oxygen, which in turn affects the degradation process.
What can be the result of poor sanitation conditions?
The problem of poor sanitation is more prevalent in rural areas. Villagers defecate in the open, on dry river beds, railway tracks, fields and even directly in water. This causes water and soil pollution. Moreover, it contaminates and affects ground water as well as surface water, resulting in diseases, such as, cholera, typhoid, polio, meningitis, hepatitis and dysentery.
List better housekeeping activities to minimise or eliminate waste at their sources and give reason behind doing it.
1. Cooking oil and fats should not be thrown down the drain. They can harden and block the pipes. In an open drain, the fats clog the soil pores, reducing its effectiveness in filtering water. Throw oil and fats in the dustbin.
2. Chemicals, like paints, solvents, insecticides, motor oil and medicines may kill microbes that help to purify water. So do not throw them down the drain.
3. Used tealeaves, solid food remains, soft toys, cotton, sanitary towels, etc. should also be thrown in the dustbin. These wastes choke the drains. They do not allow free flow of oxygen. This hampers the degradation process.
What are the harmful effects of open drains and what can you do to overcome the situation?
The sight of open drains is disgusting. The situation worsens in the rainy season when the drains start overflowing. We have to wade through the mud pools on the roads. Flies, mosquitoes and other insects breed in this collected water and open drains. These are the causes of many diseases. We can be an enlightened citizen and approach the municipality or the gram panchayat. We should insist that the open drains be covered. If the sewage of any particular house makes the neighbourhood dirty, we should request them to be more considerate about others’ health too.
List some of the ways through which you can maintain sanitation at public places.
1. We should not scatter litter anywhere. If there is no dustbin in sight, we should carry the litter back home and throw it in the dustbin.
2. We should not defecate in the open.
3. We should avoid having open drains, as these can be the breeding place for mosquitoes, flies, etc.
4. We should influence others with our energy, ideas and optimism to spread knowledge regarding proper sanitation.