LESSON: Transportation in Animals and Plants

# Question: 1

What are the two types of transport vessels in plants?

## Solution:

Xylem and phloem are the two transport vessels in plants.

# Question: 2

What are the two vessels that connect heart and lungs?

## Solution:

Pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein

# Question: 3

In what scenario is dialysis done?

## Solution:

Dialysis is a treatment of filtering and purifying blood through machines. It is performed during kidney failure.

# Question: 4

When you are feeling the pulse in your wrist, what are you actually measuring?

## Solution:

Heart beat rate or pulse rate per minute

# Question: 5

Where is the heart present in our body?

## Solution:

In the chest cavity between the two lungs with the lower tip slightly tilted to the left.

# Question: 6

Name the chambers of the heart?

## Solution:

Upper chambers: Left atrium and right atrium

Lower chambers: Left ventricle and right ventricle

# Question: 7

What are the waste products in human bodies?

## Solution:

Carbondioxide, urine, faeces, and sweat.

# Question: 1

How does blood carry digested end products to various parts of the body?

## Solution:

The inner lining of the small intestinal wall has finger like projections called villi. The villi have blood capillaries in them that can absorb the digested food particles and carry it to different parts of the body.

# Question: 2

How is oxygen carried in blood?

## Solution:

Oxygen is carried in blood by combining with the haemoglobin in RBCs. The haemoglobin is responsible for giving the red colour to the blood.

# Question: 3

Why is dialysis necessary in case of kidney failure?

## Solution:

In case of kidney failure, the waste products in our body start accumulating in blood, causing blood toxicity. Under such circumstances a person will not live unless the blood is filtered periodically using an artificial kidney. This process is known as dialysis and is essential to keep the patient alive.

# Question: 4

How do fishes remove their waste products?

## Solution:

The method followed in removing waste products from the animal bodies is based on water availability. Animals that live in water like fishes produce waste products in the form of ammonia which gets directly dissolved in the surrounding water.

# Question: 5

Why is transpiration a necessary evil?

## Solution:

Transpiration is a necessary evil because while it leads to unnecessary loss of large quantities of water from the plant body, it also creates a suction pull owing to which the water can rise up in plants defying gravity.

# Question: 6

Give the composition of urine.

## Solution:

An adult generally produces around 1 to 1.8 litre of urine in a day. The human urine is composed of almost 95% water, 2.5% urea and 2.5% of other waste products.

# Question: 7

How do cacti protect themselves from water loss by transpiration?

## Solution:

Cacti which grow in deserts and dry areas have their leaves modified into thorns and spines to avoid loss of water through transpiration. The photosynthesis in such plants takes place in their green stems.

# Question: 1

Draw the human heart and label it.

# Question: 2

Draw and label the human excretory system.

# Question: 3

What are the components of blood in human beings?

## Solution:

Blood is a very important fluid for our body. It circulates constantly inside our body through the blood vessels and carries oxygen from the lungs, digested food from the intestine and other essential nutrients to all cells of the body and also removes waste products.

The components of blood are:

Plasma: It is a yellowish liquid that is mostly water which is absorbed from the intestines when we drink or eat something. It also carries nutrients, hormones, and proteins throughout the body.

Red Blood Cells: Red Blood cells or RBC consist of a red coloured pigment called haemoglobin. The haemoglobin transports oxygen and carbon dioxide to all parts of the body and give the blood its colour.

White Blood Cells: White blood cells or WBC are also called Leukocytes. They provide protection against diseases by attacking the foreign bodies such as virus and bacteria.

Platelets: Platelets are the smallest blood cells. They control bleeding by allowing the body to clot around a cut. The clot keeps the blood inside the vessel while the break in the blood vessel heals up.

# Question: 4

Explain the transportation system in plants?

## Solution:

Plants have channel like vessels that help in the transportation of water and nutrients absorbed from the soil. These vessels are of special cells and known as the vascular tissue. The vascular tissue that helps in transporting water and nutrients from the roots to the leaves is known as the xylem. It forms a continuous network of pipes from the roots to the leaves and transports water to the whole plant. The prepared food is transported from leaves to all other parts of the plant by another type of vascular tissue known as the phloem.

# Question: 5

Give a diagram showing the transport of water and minerals in root section.

## Solution:

The transport of water and minerals in a root section

# Question: 6

Explain the process of heart beat.

## Solution:

The human heart is an organ, and it constantly beats like a pump to help in the circulation of blood that carries vital substances with it. The heart has four chambers, and the walls of these chambers are made up of muscles that contract and relax in a fixed pattern. The rhythmic patterns consisting of one contraction followed by a relaxation make for one heartbeat, and this pattern is continuous without a break throughout a person’s life. If the hand is placed on left side of the chest, one can feel the heartbeat. The doctor feels this heartbeat using a medical device known as a stethoscope.