Lesson: Weather, Climate and Adaptations of Animals to the Climate
Name the elements that determine the weather of a place.
Temperature, humidity, rainfall, wind speed, etc. are the elements that determine the weather of a place.
When are the maximum and minimum temperatures likely to occur during the day?
The maximum temperature of the day occurs during the afternoon while the minimum temperature occurs in the early morning.
Fill in the blanks:
(i) The average weather taken over a long time is called ___________.
(ii) A place receives very little rainfall and the temperature is high throughout the year, the climate of that place will be___________ and ___________.
(iii) The two regions of the earth with extreme climatic conditions are___________ and __________.
(i) Climate of the place
(ii) Hot and Dry
(iii) Tropical region and Polar region
Indicate the type of climate of the following areas:
(a)Jammu and Kashmir: _______________________
(b) Kerala: ______________________________
(c) Rajasthan: ___________________________
(d) North-east India: _______________________
(a) Moderately hot and wet climate during the summer season and cold during the winters
(b) Very hot and wet climate throughout the year
(c) It is hot and dry, i.e., high temperature almost throughout the year. But during the winter season, the temperature is quite low.
(d) Wet because this region receives very high rainfall for major part of the year.
Which of the two changes frequently, weather or climate?
The weather of a place changes frequently in comparison to the climate. Since the weather is the day-to-day condition of the atmosphere at a place, whereas, climate is the average weather pattern taken over a long time.
Following are some of the characteristics of animals:
(i) Diets heavy on fruits
(ii) White fur
(iii) Need to migrate
(iv) Loud voice
(v) Sticky pads on feet
(vi) Layer of fat under skin
(vii) Wide and large paws
(viii) Bright colours
(ix) Strong tails
(x) Long and large beak
For each characteristic indicate whether it is adaptation for tropical rainforests or polar regions. Do you think that some of these characteristics can be adapted for both regions?
Need to migrate can be adapted for both the regions, since migration is a phenomenon which is followed in adverse conditions.
The tropical rainforest has a large population of animals. Explain why it is so.
The tropical rainforest has a large population of animals because of continuous warmth and rainfall received in the area. In tropical rainforests days and nights are almost equal in length throughout the year. The temperature of this region varies from 15°C to 40°C during the year. These regions get plenty of rainfall. Therefore, climatic conditions in rainforests are highly suitable for supporting the breeding of an enormous number and variety of animals.
Explain, with examples, why we find animals of certain kind living in particular climatic conditions.
Animals are adapted to survive in the conditions in which they live. Animals living in very cold and hot climate must possess special features to protect themselves against the extreme cold or heat. Features and habits that help animals to adapt to their surroundings are a result of the process of evolution. For example:
· Polar bears living in snow have white fur so that they are not easily detectable in the snowy white background. It protects them from their predators and also helps them to catch prey.
· Monkeys have long tails for grasping branches and are adapted to live in tropical rain forests this way.
How does an elephant living in the tropical rain forest adapt itself?
An elephant living in the tropical rainforest adapts in many ways like,
1. It uses the trunk as a nose because of which it has a strong sense of smell.
2. It also uses the trunk for picking up food.
3. Its tusks are modified teeth. These are used to tear the bark of trees that the elephant loves to eat.
Large ears of the elephant help it to perceive very soft sounds too. The pair of ears also helps to keep it cool in the hot and humid climate of the rain forest.
Choose the correct option which answers the following question:
A carnivore with stripes on its body moves very fast while catching its prey. It is likely to be found in
(i) Polar regions
(iv) Tropical rainforests
Which features adapt polar bears to live in extremely cold climate?
(i) A white fur, fat below skin, keen sense of smell.
(ii) Thin skin, large eyes, a white fur.
(iii) A long tail, strong claws, white large paws.
(iv) White body, paws for swimming, gills for respiration.
Which option best describes a tropical region?
(i) Hot and humid
(ii) Moderate temperature, heavy rainfall
(iii) Cold and humid
(iv) Hot and dry